Dec 06, 2022  
2020-2021 Undergraduate Bulletin 
    
2020-2021 Undergraduate Bulletin [ARCHIVED BULLETIN]

Course Descriptions


 

English as a Second Language (ESL)

  
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    ESL 108 - American Academic Culture in the Classroom

    Semester Hours: 1-2
    This course will focus on the nature of university classroom and course interactions in speaking and writing, with learning tasks focused on typical classroom assignments, including oral presentations, leading discussion, short reports, and written summaries.  This course will help students move from advanced low toward advanced high (ACTFL) in terms of their speaking and writing proficiency.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Advanced-low proficiency in reading and writing as defined by the ACTFL proficiency guidelines (may be demonstrated by the successful completion of ESL 4a).



  
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    ESL 109 - American Academic Culture Outside the Classroom

    Semester Hours: 1 s.h.
    This course will focus on the nature of university peer interactions outside the classroom, with learning tasks focused on informal social interactions in the context of student clubs and organizations.  Learning tasks will help students move from advanced-low proficiency toward advanced-high proficiency (ACTFL).  The course is designed to develop nonnative speaker oral and listening skills relevant to establishing and maintaining direct conversation and communication in English. It focuses on a range of skills, including improving listening comprehension, participating in discussions and debates, understanding conversational strategies, giving group presentations, and asking and answering questions.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Advanced low-proficiency in listening and speaking as defined by the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines (may be demonstrated by successful completion of ESL 004b ).



  
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    ESL 110 - Discourse Strategy Practicum

    Semester Hours: 1-2
    This course will help student improve their English discourse strategies through using logic and critical thinking, and developing presentational skills. Students will participate in different persuasive and informative speech topics. Students will learn to format arguments in English, create mind maps, and list the arguments for both sides of a debate. In this course, students will learn debate formats, and such skills as how to take the floor (and keep it), interpreting resolutions, developing affirmative and negative case constructions, conducting cross-examinations, and evaluating arguments.



  
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    ESL 111 - Advanced Reading, Writing, and Grammar II

    Semester Hours: 3 s.h.
    This course, designed for nonnative speaker of English with advanced-mid proficiency in reading and writing (ACTFL), focuses on improving students’ grammar usage, broadening vocabulary, improving academic writing, and enhancing interpretive reading strategies.  Students will study the conventions of academic writing while reviewing grammar and prose mechanics.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Advanced-mid proficiency in reading and writing (may be desmonstrated by successful completion of ESL 105 ) as defined by the ACTFL proficiency guidelines.



  
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    ESL 112 - Advanced Listening, Viewing, and Speaking II

    Semester Hours: 3 s.h.
    This course, designed for non-native speakers of English with advanced-mid oral and listening proficiency (ACTFL), will enhance their interpretive listening and viewing skills and interpersonal and presentational oral skills to help them succeed in academic, professional, and social pursuits. Students will practice and improve skills in spoken English on abstract topics in extended discourse. They will work at improving argument and hypothesis, giving presentations, participating and leading discussions, and other areas of general academic discourse.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Advanced-mid proficiency in listening and speaking (may be demonstrated by completion of ESL 106  ) as defined in the ACTFL proficiency guidelines.




English Language Program (ELP)

  
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    ELP 011A - Introductory Reading Comprehension

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring, Summer
    Development of reading skills including vocabulary development, comprehension and study skills, and critical evaluation of written materials.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    This course is part of Level I, Introductory Intensive English, an accelerated program providing intensive instruction and practice in reading, writing and speaking English for students whose native language is not English. Level I consists of two components: 1) Reading and Writing; 2) Conversation and Language Laboratory. Each component is based on a grammatical syllabus. Grading is mandatory Pass/Fail. No degree credit.



  
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    ELP 012A - Introductory Grammar

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring, Summer
    The introduction and development of the fundamental aspects of English grammar and structure.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    This course is part of Level I, Introductory Intensive English, an accelerated program providing intensive instruction and practice in reading, writing and speaking English for students whose native language is not English. Level I consists of two components: 1) Reading and Writing; 2) Conversation and Language Laboratory. Each component is based on a grammatical syllabus. Grading is mandatory Pass/Fail. No degree credit.



  
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    ELP 013A - Introductory Conversation

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring, Summer
    Selected readings and discussions with stress on the audio-lingual aspect of the language and the development of verbal communication skills.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    This course is part of Level I, Introductory Intensive English, an accelerated program providing intensive instruction and practice in reading, writing and speaking English for students whose native language is not English. Level I consists of two components: 1) Reading and Writing; 2) Conversation and Language Laboratory. Each component is based on a grammatical syllabus. Grading is mandatory Pass/Fail. No degree credit.



  
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    ELP 014A - Introductory Language Laboratory and Tutorial

    Semester Hours: 4
    Fall
    Supervised laboratory and tutorial work on specific weaknesses in spoken English. For beginning ELP students.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    This course is part of Level I, Introductory Intensive English, an accelerated program providing intensive instruction and practice in reading, writing and speaking English for students whose native language is not English. Level I consists of two components: 1) Reading and Writing; 2) Conversation and Language Laboratory. Each component is based on a grammatical syllabus. Grading is mandatory Pass/Fail. No degree credit.



  
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    ELP 015A - Introductory Composition

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring, Summer
    A writing course designed to give the non-native student extensive practice in the development of expository writing skills.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    This course is part of Level I, Introductory Intensive English, an accelerated program providing intensive instruction and practice in reading, writing and speaking English for students whose native language is not English. Level I consists of two components: 1) Reading and Writing; 2) Conversation and Language Laboratory. Each component is based on a grammatical syllabus. Grading is mandatory Pass/Fail. No degree credit.



  
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    ELP 016A - Introductory Reading and Writing

    Semester Hours: 6
    Development of reading and writing skills following a grammatical syllabus. Reading and writing tasks are designed to provide opportunity for practice and application of relevant grammatical items and structures presented at this level.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    This course is part of Level I, Introductory Intensive English, an accelerated program providing intensive instruction and practice in reading, writing and speaking English for students whose native language is not English. Level I consists of two components: 1) Reading and Writing; 2) Conversation and Language Laboratory. Each component is based on a grammatical syllabus. Grading is mandatory Pass/Fail. No degree credit.



  
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    ELP 017A - Introductory Conversation, Language Laboratory and Tutorial

    Semester Hours: 6
    Development of verbal communication and listening comprehension skills following a grammatical syllabus. Verbal and listening tasks are designed to provide opportunity for practice and application of relevant grammatical items and structures presented at this level. Tutorial work on specific weaknesses of individual students.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    This course is part of Level I, Introductory Intensive English, an accelerated program providing intensive instruction and practice in reading, writing and speaking English for students whose native language is not English. Level I consists of two components: 1) Reading and Writing; 2) Conversation and Language Laboratory. Each component is based on a grammatical syllabus. Grading is mandatory Pass/Fail. No degree credit.



  
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    ELP 021B - Intermediate Reading Comprehension

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring, Summer
    Development of specialized reading skills through selected readings from the disciplines of the sciences, social sciences and the humanities.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Completion of ELP Level I and/or the appropriate satisfactory score on the Hofstra ELP Placement Examination. This course is part of Level II, Intermediate Intensive English, an intermediate level program providing intensive instruction and practice in reading, writing and speaking English for students whose native language is not English. Grading is mandatory Pass/Fail. No degree credit.



  
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    ELP 022B - Intermediate Grammar

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    Structural review and development of vocabulary and grammar at the intermediate level.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Completion of ELP Level I and/or the appropriate satisfactory score on the Hofstra ELP Placement Examination. This course is part of Level II, Intermediate Intensive English, an intermediate level program providing intensive instruction and practice in reading, writing and speaking English for students whose native language is not English. Grading is mandatory Pass/Fail. No degree credit.



  
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    ELP 023B - Intermediate Oral Communication

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring, Summer
    Development of ability to communicate orally in English through such activities as discussions and roleplaying. Focus is on discussion techniques such as clarification and confirmation of a message and on speech functions such as stating facts, stating or challenging opinions, or reporting information.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Completion of ELP Level I and/or the appropriate satisfactory score on the Hofstra ELP Placement Examination. This course is part of Level II, Intermediate Intensive English, an intermediate level program providing intensive instruction and practice in reading, writing and speaking English for students whose native language is not English. Grading is mandatory Pass/Fail. No degree credit.



  
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    ELP 024B - Intermediate Language Laboratory and Tutorial

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring, Summer
    Supervised laboratory and tutorial for intermediate work on specific weaknesses in spoken English.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Completion of ELP Level I and/or the appropriate satisfactory score on the Hofstra ELP Placement Examination. This course is part of Level II, Intermediate Intensive English, an intermediate level program providing intensive instruction and practice in reading, writing and speaking English for students whose native language is not English. Grading is mandatory Pass/Fail. No degree credit.



  
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    ELP 025 - Intermediate Composition

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring, Summer
    Development of the student’s expository writing skills including idiomatic usage and the argumentative essay.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Completion of ELP Level I and/or the appropriate satisfactory score on the Hofstra ELP Placement Examination. This course is part of Level II, Intermediate Intensive English, an intermediate level program providing intensive instruction and practice in reading, writing and speaking English for students whose native language is not English.



  
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    ELP 026B - American Encounters

    Semester Hours: 1
    Summer
    This course allows students to acquire better oral proficiency and listening comprehension by interacting spontaneously in English with native speakers other than their instructors, with instructors providing minimal guidance or control. Unlike the classroom, the world outside presents opportunities for students to gain experience using English to communicate and negotiate their way in a natural setting. Learning occasions will grow out of field trips to cultural attractions, walking tours of historic areas, and other activities in New York City and Long Island.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Corequisite: ELP 023B . Excursion fees additional. Grading is mandatory Pass/Fail. No degree credit.



  
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    ELP 031 - Advanced Reading Comprehension

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    Development of reading skills. Topics range from the liberal arts to the sciences and careers, depending on the interests of the students and faculty.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Completion of ELP Level II and/or the appropriate satisfactory score on the Hofstra ELP Placement Examination. This course is part of Level III, Advanced Intensive English, an intensive program providing instruction and practice in written and spoken English for students whose native language is not English.



  
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    ELP 032C - Seminar: Sentence Structure and Tutorial

    Semester Hours: 2
    Frequent practice in writing with emphasis on the paragraph. Attention is focused on both paragraph organization (topic sentence, development of specific concrete details, coherence) and basic sentence structure (word order, tenses, agreement, punctuation). Required of Level 3 students who are not prepared for ELP 035  based upon the ELP Placement Examination or with the advice of the student’s ELP 025  teacher.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Completion of ELP Level II and/or the appropriate satisfactory score on the Hofstra ELP Placement Examination. This course is part of Level III, Advanced Intensive English, an intensive program providing instruction and practice in written and spoken English for students whose native language is not English. Grading is mandatory Pass/Fail. No degree credit. (Formerly Workshop: Sentence Structure and Tutorial.)



  
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    ELP 033C - Advanced Oral Communication

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    Designed for students who need to increase their fluency and communicative ability in English. Different speaking tasks include discussing, role playing, interviewing and making speeches or short oral reports. Emphasis is given to continuing development of discussion techniques and speech functions practiced in the intermediate course in addition to speech functions such as summarizing, presenting proposals and argumentation.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Completion of ELP Level II and/or the appropriate satisfactory score on the Hofstra ELP Placement Examination. This course is part of Level III, Advanced Intensive English, an intensive program providing instruction and practice in written and spoken English for students whose native language is not English. Grading is mandatory Pass/Fail. No degree credit.



  
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    ELP 034C - English for Academic Purposes

    Semester Hours: 2
    Fall
    Designed to teach the non-native student skills in following lectures in English, note-taking, summarizing, paraphrasing and test taking necessary for successful participation in the American university system. In particular, this course provides practice in refining listening comprehension skills and, in part, prepares students to take the TOEFL examination.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Completion of ELP Level II and/or the appropriate satisfactory score on the Hofstra ELP Placement Examination. This course is part of Level III, Advanced Intensive English, an intensive program providing instruction and practice in written and spoken English for students whose native language is not English. Grading is mandatory Pass/Fail. No degree credit.



  
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    ELP 035 - Advanced Composition

    Semester Hours: 2-3
    Fall, Spring
    Designed to have non-native students achieve proficiency in essay writing on specific themes. Introduction to literary analysis using the appropriate technical vocabulary and figures of speech.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Completion of ELP Level II and/or the appropriate satisfactory score on the Hofstra ELP Placement Examination; satisfactory completion of ELP 025  or permission of instructor. This course is part of Level III, Advanced Intensive English, an intensive program providing instruction and practice in written and spoken English for students whose native language is not English.



  
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    ELP 036 - Topics in American Culture

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    Readings and discussions related to contemporary American society. Emphasis is on the writing of essays on literary texts and other expressions of American culture.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Completion of ELP Level II and/or the appropriate satisfactory score on the Hofstra ELP Placement Examination; satisfactory completion of ELP 035  or permission of instructor. This course is part of Level III, Advanced Intensive English, an intensive program providing instruction and practice in written and spoken English for students whose native language is not English.




Entrepreneurship (ENTR)

  
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    ENTR 115 - Introduction to Global Entrepreneurship

    Semester Hours: 3


    Fall, Spring

    An introduction to global entrepreneurship. Basic topics will include: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurs, new ventures, position in society and the global economy, resources, related disciplines, etc. Individual and team projects will include interviews with entrepreneurs and the development of simple business plans.



  
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    ENTR 116 - Family Business

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    This course is about the critical issues involved in transition planning from one owner/entrepreneur to another generation of a prospective owner/entrepreneur. These issues are examined from the perspective of all interested parties: the senior owner/entrepreneur, the intended successor, other family members, employees, and other stakeholders. Company and environmental conditions are examined. 

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    MGT 101  and junior class standing or above.



  
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    ENTR 120 - New Business Ventures

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    Course in new business ventures building upon the concepts introduced in ENTR 115 , which deals with planning, starting, growing and managing new ventures. Students will evaluate various new ventures and the common business development issues that confront them, develop and present an individual professional-level business plan, and complete a variety of innovative projects designed to develop heightened entrepreneurial planning and management proficiency.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    ENTR 115 , IT 015 , ACCT 101 , junior class standing or above. Corequisite: MKT 101 . (Formerly Advanced Entrepreneurship Studies.)



  
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    ENTR 121 - Law for the Entrepreneur

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    This course will explore salient legal issues faced by small business owners and entrepreneurs with limited resources in starting and operating a new business. Topics covered include selecting a form of business organization, raising money and securities regulation, creditors’ rights and bankruptcy, contracts and leases, e-commerce, employment regulations, risk management and insurance, intellectual property, raising venture capital, buying and selling a business, public offerings, and global expansion.




    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    LEGL 020  and junior class standing or above. (Same as LEGL 121 .)



  
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    ENTR 122 - The Entrepreneurial Vision

    Semester Hours: 3


    Fall

    A laboratory course for entrepreneurship students.  Students will generate ideas for a new venture and develop an actionable business model.  Students will be provided with an advisory board and limited start-up capital.  Students must successfully pitch their business model to a panel of judges.  ENTR 123  must be taken in the semester following completion of this course.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    ENTR 115 , sophomore class standing or above.



  
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    ENTR 123 - The Entrepreneurial Practicum

    Semester Hours: 3


    Spring

    A laboratory course for entrepreneurship students.  Students will implement business plans developed in prior entrepreneurship courses.  Students are responsible for all aspects of the new venture, including marketing, human resource management, financial accounting, etc.  Students will be provided with an advisory board and limited start-up capital.  Must be taken in the semester following completion of ENTR 122.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    ENTR 122   sophomore class standing or above.



  
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    ENTR 125 - Corporate Entrepreneurship and Intrapreneurship

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    Focus on how corporations develop new ventures and critically examine the circumstances that make it possible for employees to be entreprenurial within a corporate context. Intrapreneurial projects will be developed.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    ENTR 115 MGT 101 , junior class standing or above. (Formerly Corporate Venturing and Intrapreneurship.)




  
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    ENTR 126 - International Entrepreneurial Consulting

    Semester Hours: 3


    Spring

    The International Entrepreneurial Consulting course is a full-semester course involving classroom experience and preparation for a one week-long study abroad experience in a global economy. Students will work on consultant teams to learn about and assist local, emerging entrepreneurs in financial technology and other sectors to develop practical solutions to business programs (including marketing, production, financial, accounting, and/or human resource deliverables). Students will experience the cultural context in which these entrepreneurs live and work and become acquainted with the distinct challenges that these entrepreneurs face. Students will maintain a journal where they will critically reflect on their observations of the entrepreneurial journey for a start-up in a global economy and their personal contributions to the project.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    ENTR 115 , MGT 101 , Junior class standing (Formerly ENTR 157 - International Entrepreneurial Consulting).  Class is open to non-business majors upon advisement and with permission of the Department Chairperson.



  
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    ENTR 127 - Inter-Regional Entrepreneurship Assessment

    Semester Hours: 3


    Spring

    The Inter-Regional Entrepreneurship Assessment course is a full -semester course involving classroom experience and online preparation for a one week-long domestic regional tour in a dynamic entrepreneurial eco-system. Students will work on assessment teams to determine how to develop a specific type of entrepreneurial eco-system locally based on an already existing model in a different part of the U.S.A. Students will experience the cultural context in which these entrepreneurs live and work and become acquainted with the distinct challenges that these entrepreneurs face. Students will maintain a research assessment journal where they will document their field observations of the critical factors needed for successful transfer of entrepreneurial initiatives. Student assessments will culminate in written case studies that examine practical solutions for the development of the local entrepreneurship community, including business model innovations, evaluation processes for scaling, socio-economic issues, and policy needs for the focal region.
     

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    ENTR 115 , MGT 101 , Junior class standing (Formerly ENTR 157 - Inter-Regional Entrepreneurship Assessment).  Class is open to non-business majors upon advisement and with permission of the Department Chairperson.



  
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    ENTR 129 - Social Entrepreneurship

    Semester Hours: 3


    Periodically

    This course prepares students to apply the entrepreneurial process to societal issues and problems. A combination of lectures, readings and case studies will be employed. Students will explore the unique challenges and opportunities for both not-for-profit and for-profit firms to create social value. Students will prepare a new venture plan for a social opportunity.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    ENTR 115 , sophomore class standing or above.



  
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    ENTR 157 A-Z - Seminar: Special Topics in Entrepreneurship

    Semester Hours: 3


    Periodically

    An advanced in-depth treatment of special topics. Current topics are explored through a variety of methods, such as lectures, projects and case studies. 


    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    ENTR 115  , MGT 101 , junior class standing or above, and any additional prerequisites as stated in the course schedule. As individual subjects are selected; each is assigned a letter (A-Z) which is affixed to the course number. Students may take up to two of these courses to fulfill their major requirements so long as each seminar has a different letter designation.Specific titles and course descriptions for special topics courses are available in the online class schedule



  
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    ENTR 165 - Research in Current Entrepreneurship Issues

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    Current issues and topics in entrepreneurship are examined via the most recent academic and practitioner printed and electronic media and sources. These issues and topics will be subjected to in-depth analysis in the class sessions and in individual written assignments.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    ENTR 120 , 125 ; FIN 101 ; senior class standing.



  
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    ENTR 170 - Small Business Consulting

    Semester Hours: 3
    Once a year
    Team-based consulting project to entrepreneur business client. Combination of class sessions, instructor-team conferences, student team meetings, research, and team-client meetings. The primary course objective is a comprehensive consulting report for the client.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    A minimum grade point average of 3.0 in major and 3.0 overall, ENTR 120 , 125 , senior class standing or permission of department chairperson. Corequisite: FIN 110 . (Formerly Entrepreneurship Consulting Project.)




  
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    ENTR 185 - Internship in Entrepreneurship

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    A work-study program open to senior entrepreneurship majors . Students work a minimum of 120 hours in a structured entrepreneurial activities program offered by a for-profit organization.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Permission of department chairperson, a minimum grade point average of 3.0 in major and 3.0 overall, ENTR 120 , 125 ; FIN 110 ; senior class standing.



  
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    ENTR 190 - Departmental Honors Candidacy: Essay

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    Research for the writing of substantial essay in the field of entrepreneurship. Students will present their research to an ad hoc faculty committee upon completion of the course work. Open only to senior entrepreneurship majors  who are eligible for and desire to graduate with departmental honors and who secure, before graduation, written permission of the department chairperson.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Minimum grade point average of 3.5 in entrepreneurship and 3.4 overall. 




European Studies (EUR)

  
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    EUR 010 A-Z - (IS) Special Topics in European Culture and Politics Abroad

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    This is an interdisciplinary course/study abroad experience focused on the politics, culture, geography, religion, music, art, literature, and history of a European country. An interdisciplinary approach will allow students to better understand how politics have shaped culture, history, and the arts, and in turn, how they inform politics. The course will incorporate field experiences as a way to explore political, social, and economic conditions and structures, both past and present. Field experiences may include, but are not limited to, visiting art and history museums and historical sites; attending music, dance, and theater performances; meeting government officials; exploring nature; and enjoying explorations of local and regional agriculture and cuisines. This course will fully utilize the study abroad experience, which facilitates an interdisciplinary approach and allows for a deeper understanding of the culture and politics of the European country visited.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Specific titles and course descriptions for special topics courses are available in the online class schedule.



  
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    EUR 020 - (IS) Ireland Inside Out

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    This is an interdisciplinary course that introduces students to the ideas and institutions of contemporary Ireland. Topics include the role of religion in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland; colonialism and post-colonialism in the Republic; the peace process in Northern Ireland; globalization and the Celtic Tiger economy; and Irish emigration to the United States and beyond. Using historical, sociological, philosophical, and literary sources, the class explores what Ireland and Irishness mean today.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Same as IRE 020 .



  
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    EUR 047 - (IS) The Great Irish Famine

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    This course brings an interdisciplinary approach to the study of the Great Irish Famine (1845-1852).  The course will address four questions: What were the conditions in Ireland that led to the Great Irish Famine? Was the Famine an act of nature or a failure of public and private responsibility?  How did the Famine change Ireland and the world?  What is the legacy of the Great Irish Famine?

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Same as IRE 047 . Not repeatable for credit.



  
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    EUR 090 - (BH) Sociology of Contemporary Ireland

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    This course applies sociological theory and methods to explore contemporary Ireland. Topics examined include the Celtic Tiger, the Irish Diaspora, ethnic minorities in Ireland, religion in Ireland, conflict and peace in Northern Ireland, and the Irish language. Fieldwork for assignments will facilitate student interaction with Irish communities while raising awareness of similarities, differences, and connections between Ireland and the United States.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Same as SOC 090  and IRE 090 . May not be repeated for credit.




Finance (FIN)

  
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    FIN 031 - Financial Skills for Life

    Semester Hours: 2
    Periodically
    Basics of personal finance. Types of savings and investments available and their relative merits. A survey of investment principles and problems from the point of view of personal finance. Analysis of real estate, insurance and estate planning. A discussion of charge accounts, installment accounts and various types of credit cards.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    No credit will be applied to the finance major or minor requirements. (Formerly Personal Financial Planning, 3 s.h.)



  
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    FIN 101 - Introduction to Finance, Financial Markets and Institutions

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    An introductory course in finance. Topics include the time value of money, risk and return, valuation of securities, the functions, organization, structure and regulation of financial institutions and markets. Overview of the globalization process, ethical, political and social, and demographic issues that apply to financial markets and institutions.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Sophomore class standing or above. (Students who have completed 24 s.h. or above may seek a waiver from the department chairperson.) ECO 001 ; ACCT 101 ; BAN 001 ; MATH 040  or 045  or 050  or 061  or 061A  or 071 .



  
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    FIN 110 - Fundamentals of Corporate Finance

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    A study of the theoretical principles and analytical techniques used for the financial evaluation of capital budgeting, capital structure and dividend policy decisions under conditions of uncertainty. Evaluation of corporate acquisitions; financial statement analysis and overview of working capital management; and study of the international dimensions of corporate finance. Overview of the influence of the globalization process, legal and regulatory, political and social, and environmental forces on corporate finance decisions and practices. Discussion of the ethical perspectives of corporate financial decisions.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Sophomore class standing or above. FIN 101 , ECO 002 , ACCT 102 . Corequisite: BAN 122 .



  
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    FIN 111 - Working Capital Management

    Semester Hours: 3
    Once a Year
    Analysis of the short-term sources and uses of funds with primary emphasis on the management of short-term assets and liabilities. Topics include credit and collections, the role of banks, inventory control procedures, financial analysis, cash forecasting, payables, and investing excess cash. Impact of technology, regulations and globalization on working capital management is discussed.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FIN 110 .



  
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    FIN 115 - International Financial Management: Chinese Perspectives

    Semester Hours: 3.0
    Principles of international financial management of firms from a Chinese perspective.  Review and application of the theories and concepts of international financial management in the context of firms operating in the Chinese economy.  Topics covered include exchange rate risk management, balance of payments and trade, and exchange rate determination.  (Open only to matriculated DUFE students in the Zarb School of Business and other Schools at Hofstra where appropriate.  See specific program requirements.)

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FINANCE 110.  Open only to matriculated DUFE students in the Zarb School of Business and other Schools at Hofstra where appropriate.  See specific program requirements.



  
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    FIN 116 - Special Topics in Chinese Financial Sector

    Semester Hours: 3
    An in-depth analysis of the current state of the financial sector in China.  Emphasis on the rapid development of the various financial sectors in China, including the banking industry and the securities markets (stocks, bonds and mutual funds).  Other topics covered include shadow-banking, e-finance, SME financing and payment systems.  Challenges and opportunities faced by market participants in these financial sectors are explored.  (Open only to matriculated DUFE students in the Zarb School of Business and other Schools at Hofstra where appropriate.  See specific program requirements.)

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FINANCE 110.  Open only to matriculated DUFE students in the Zarb School of Business and other Schools at Hofstra where appropriate.  See specific program requirements.



  
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    FIN 117 - Chinese Economy and Society

    Semester Hours: 3.0
    Examination of themes and issues in contemporary Chinese economy and society in the areas of international economics and finance.  The interaction between economic policies and social, cultural and political influences in China are examined.  Topics in international trade theory, such as comparative advantage, role of international trade organizations and exchange rate mechanisms, are explored in the context of the societal impact on decision making in China. (Open only to matriculated DUFE students in the Zarb School of Business and other Schools at Hofstra where appropriate.  See specific program requirements.)

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FINANCE 110.  Open only to matriculated DUFE students in the Zarb School of Business and other Schools at Hofstra where appropriate.  See specific program requirements.



  
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    FIN 118 - Seminar: Case Studies in China’s Financial System

    Semester Hours: 3.0
    An introduction to the origins, concepts, and development of China’s financial system through case studies. Selected real cases will be the subject of this semester’s study. The analysis and discussion of the cases will provide an in-depth understanding of China’s financial system. (Open only to matriculated DUFE students in the Zarb School of Business and other Schools at Hofstra where appropriate.  See specific program requirements.)

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FINANCE 110.  Open only to matriculated DUFE students in the Zarb School of Business and other Schools at Hofstra where appropriate.  See specific program requirements.



  
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    FIN 123 - Money and Financial Institutions

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    The role of money and financial institutions within the financial system. Determination of interest rates. Goals and operations of the Federal Reserve System, and the U.S. Treasury and their impact on the financial system. Study of the framework and the management of banking and nonbank financial intermediaries. Issues pertaining to the regulation, innovation, competition, and internationalization of financial institutions.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FIN 101 .



  
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    FIN 128 - Financing the New Venture

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    Financing new enterprises through venture capital or private equity is presented from the entrepreneur’s perspective. Emphasis will be placed on the process of evaluating investment opportunities, structuring financing, developing and implementing the financial component of a business plan, and harvesting the venture’s success. The institutional and regulatory environment of entrepreneurial finance will be presented.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FIN 110 .



  
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    FIN 132 - Principles of Investments

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    A study of the theories and analytical techniques used to value financial securities and assets in the markets they are traded. Valuation principles and models for securities including options and futures contracts. Theories of equilibrium asset pricing and the efficient capital markets hypothesis are discussed. Fundamental and technical analysis compared. Overview of the role of computer and information technology for investment evaluation and related securities markets. Discussion of the ethical, global, regulatory, environmental and demographic issues which impact the analysis and valuation of investments by individuals and institutional investors.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FIN 110 . (Formerly Security Analysis.)



  
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    FIN 133 - Portfolio Management

    Semester Hours: 3
    Once a Year
    A course in modern portfolio theory and its applications. Efficient diversification, portfolio construction and evaluation procedures. Management of equity and bond portfolios and risk hedging techniques. Portfolio practices and strategies for institutional and individual investors. Impact of globalization, ethics, regulations, social and international dimensions are incorporated into specific topics. Computer applications and hypothetical portfolio construction and performance evaluation are required in this course.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FIN 132 .



  
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    FIN 135 - Options and Futures

    Semester Hours: 3
    Once a Year
    Analysis of options and futures contracts traded worldwide. Topics include the organization and structure of markets in which they are traded; ethical considerations faced by market participants; effect of recent computer advances on futures and options markets; pricing futures and options; hedging applications; the role of price discovery; and speculative strategies. Although particular emphasis is on financial futures and options, commodity futures and options are also discussed.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FIN 132 .



  
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    FIN 141 - Money and Capital Markets

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    An in-depth analysis of the structure of domestic and international money and capital markets and the role the government plays in these markets. The role of investment bankers, brokers, and dealers in the financial markets. The characteristics of different financial instruments traded in the money and capital markets, including their relevant risk and yields. Issues pertaining to ethics, innovation, competition, and globalization of financial markets.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FIN 101 .



  
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    FIN 150 - Financial Institutions Management

    Semester Hours: 3


    Fall, Spring

    This course will focus on the financial management and regulation of financial institutions, with a primary focus on commercial banks. Students should be able to comprehend the various forms of risks faced by intermediaries and the trade-offs required in order to balance risks and returns. The focus will be on the modern techniques of asset, liability and risk management, with an emphasis on the regulatory issues of capital adequacy, and risk-shifting as they affect the safety and soundness of the financial system. Managing risk requires a thorough understanding of compliance and regulatory requirements including the latest Federal Reserve and Basel rules on traditional banking and trading of derivatives and other off-balance sheet activities.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Prerequisite: FIN 101 . Corequisite: FIN 110 . (Formerly Commercial Bank Administration, Policies and Practices.)



  
  
  
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    FIN 155A - Student Managed Investment Fund

    Semester Hours: 1.5
    Fall
    This is the first of a two-course sequence for the Student Managed Investment Fund (FIN 155A and 155B ).  The Student Managed Investment Fund (SMIF) provides students in the Frank G. Zarb School of Business  with an opportunity to develop investment management skills while engaged in decision making related to the deployment of actual funds. Students actively engage in equity research and portfolio management, providing them with a unique experiential learning opportunity. In addition to writing formal reports, students present their investment recommendations to members of the SMIF Supervisory Board.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:

    Permission of department chairperson, a minimum grade point average of 3.5 overall, FIN 132 .



  
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    FIN 155B - Student Managed Investment Fund

    Semester Hours: 1.5
    Spring
    This is the second of a two-course sequence for the Student Managed Investment Fund (FIN 155A  and 155B).  The Student Managed Investment Fund (SMIF) provides students in the Frank G. Zarb School of Business  with an opportunity to develop investment management skills while engaged in decision making related to the deployment of actual funds. Students actively engage in equity research and portfolio management, providing them with a unique experiential learning opportunity. In addition to writing formal reports, students present their investment recommendations to members of the SMIF Supervisory Board.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:

    Permission of department chairperson; a minimum GPA of 3.5 overall; FIN 132 , FIN 155A .



  
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    FIN 157 A-Z - Seminar: Special Topics in Finance

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    An advanced in-depth treatment of special topics. Current topics are explored through a variety of methods, such as lectures, projects and case studies.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FIN 110, and any additional prerequisites as stated in the course schedule. As individual subjects are selected, each is assigned a letter (A-Z) which is affixed to the course number. Students may take up to two of these courses to fulfill their major requirements so long as each seminar has a different letter designation. Specific titles and course descriptions for special topics courses are available in the online class schedule.



  
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    FIN 160 - Corporate Financial Policy

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    An in-depth study of financial theory and analysis used to evaluate and set corporate financial policy in the areas of capital budgeting, capital structure, dividend distribution, corporate restructurings, and working capital management. Discussion of the role of the various firm stakeholders in influencing financial policy. The ethical, global, social and political, regulatory, and environmental issues related to corporate financial policy are also discussed.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FIN 110 .



  
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    FIN 163 - Financial Modeling

    Semester Hours: 3
    Once a Year
    Emphasizes hands-on applications of modeling in corporate finance, investments, derivatives and risk management. Provides the student with a thorough understanding of application of quantitative models in finance. Examines different approaches to building financial models through the use of real financial data. Exposes students to various sources and uses of financial data, financial information resources, and technology as they relate to financial modeling applications. Utilizes various financial software applications.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FIN 132 .



  
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    FIN 165 - Principles of International Financial Management

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    Principles of financial management of firms operating in the global market. The parity relationships between interest rates, exchange rates and inflation rates are defined and emphasis placed on the techniques employed by multinational firms to borrow short and long term capital, evaluate projects on a global basis and hedge anticipated cash flows and profits against adverse exchange rate risks. The dilemma and ethical, environmental and legal issues encountered because of the divergence of goals and needs between parent and subsidiaries and between local and host governments are also examined.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FIN 110 .



  
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    FIN 166 - Global Financial Markets

    Semester Hours: 3


    Fall, Spring
    Study of the structure and operations of the global credit and equity markets and their use in international corporate finance and portfolio investments. Global financial markets include foreign exchange markets, international bond and stock markets, international loan markets, currency derivative markets and emerging securities markets. Innovation and evolution of financial instruments in markets worldwide and the role of private and government institutions in fostering their development. Analysis of financial instruments such as Eurodollar bonds, forward spread agreements, currency swaps and currency options and futures.

     

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FIN 110 . (Formerly International Financial Markets and Investments.)

     



  
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    FIN 170 - Fundamentals of Insurance

    Semester Hours: 3
    Once a year

    Basic principles underlying the field of insurance and risk management including the financial, economic, social, ethical and political ramifications of decision making in this area. An analysis of the institutional aspects of risk management, which will enable the individual or business to lessen financial loss from fortuitous causes.  Also covered are aspects of regulatory and compliance requirements in the industry, particularly as they relate to solvency and market conduct.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FIN 110 .



  
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    FIN 174 - Business Internship

    Semester Hours: 1-3
    Fall, Spring
    Actual practical experience in an approved setting open to junior and senior finance majors. Students work a minimum of 40 hours for 1 credit or a minimum of 80 hours for 2 credits or a minimum of 120 hours for 3 credits in a structured finance program offered by a for-profit or not-for profit organization.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Permission of department chairperson, a minimum grade point average of 2.5 in finance courses and 2.5 overall, FIN 101 , junior class standing or above.  NOTE: Students may take this course for 1, 2, or 3 s.h., and may take the course more than once, with a maximum of 3 s.h. earned.  Credits earned count toward general degree requirements but do not satisfy finance major requirements.



  
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    FIN 175 - Real Estate Finance

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    Evaluation of real estate financing and the mechanics of the mortgage market. The role of regulation, government agencies and the banking system as vehicles in promoting real estate activity. Analysis of real estate investments, property valuation, leases and types of tenancy.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FIN 110 .



  
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    FIN 185 - Internship in Finance

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    A work-study program open to senior finance majors. Students work a minimum of 120 hours in a structured finance training program offered by a for-profit or not-for-profit organization.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Permission of department chairperson, a minimum grade point average of 3.0 in finance courses and 3.0 overall, FIN 110 . Corequisite: related course in the area of the internship. (Students who do not meet these requirements, see FIN 174 .)



  
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    FIN 190 - Departmental Honors Candidacy: Essay

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    Research for the writing of a substantial essay in the field of finance. Students will present their research to an ad hoc faculty committee upon completion of the course work. Open only to senior finance majors  who are eligible for and desire to graduate with departmental honors and who secure, before registration, written permission of the department chairperson.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FIN 110 , six additional credit hours in finance , and a minimum grade point average of 3.5 in finance and 3.4 overall.




Fine Arts (FA)

  
  
  •  

    FA 008 - Art Concepts and Experiences

    Semester Hours: 3


    Fall, Spring 

    Art concepts related to experiences in drawing, design and color. Fundamentals of drawing, design and color theory are taught in an integrated sequence to develop student’s understanding of art in a studio workshop atmosphere.



  
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    FA 009 - (CP) Art Studio: Sculpture

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    Introduction to the concepts and practices of the sculptor. Students model clay, carve stone or wood and assemble found objects in a sequence of projects meant to inform visual thinking and encourage expression.



  
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    FA 010 - (CP) Introduction to Design

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    Studio projects focused on the principles of two-dimensional design in the digital era, including exploration of composition, movement, texture, space, pattern, line and scale.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    A familiarity with one or more of the following programs is desirable : Photoshop, Illustrator, or InDesign; students who do not meet these requirements should take FA 027  or discuss it with the instructor. Lab fee additional. (Formerly (CP) Two-Dimensional Design I: Black and White.)



  
  
  •  

    FA 012 - (CP) Three-Dimensional Design I: Concepts

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall
    Basic theoretical and studio work in principles of three-dimensional concepts. Spatial and formal organization is emphasized in a series of studio projects in various media.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Lab fee additional.



  
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    FA 012F - First-Year Seminar

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall
    This course gives first-year students the opportunity to work in a seminar format with a member of the faculty in an area of the faculty member’s research interests. 

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    The course is open to first-year students only. Topics vary by semester. Consult the class schedule for proper category listing. Students may take only one 12F or 12S seminar.



  
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    FA 012S - First-Year Seminar

    Semester Hours: 1-3
    Spring
    This course gives first-year students the opportunity to work in a seminar format with a member of the faculty in an area of the faculty member’s research interests.
     

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    The course is open to first-year students only. Topics vary by semester. Students may take only one 12F or 12S seminar.



  
  •  

    FA 013 - (CP) Three-Dimensional Design: Studio

    Semester Hours: 3
    Spring
    Introduction to concepts, materials, tools and techniques of the shop, with emphasis toward applicability in the formulation of three-dimensional visual thinking. A progression of projects explores a variety of materials and methods.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Lab fee additional.



  
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    FA 014 - (CP) Drawing and Perception I

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    Freehand and instrument drawing, sketching and perspective systems are taught in an integrated sequence intended to develop the student’s awareness of the relationship between visual perception and drawing skills.



  
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    FA 014F - (CP) First-Year Seminar

    Semester Hours: 3-4
    Fall
    This course gives first-year students the opportunity to work in a seminar format with a member of the faculty in an area of the faculty member’s research interests.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:

    The course is open to first-year students only. Topics vary by semester. This course is offered for distribution credit. Students may take only one 14F or 12F seminar and only one 14S or 12S seminar. May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis.



  
  •  

    FA 014S - (CP) First-Year Seminar

    Semester Hours: 3-4
    Spring

    This course gives first-year students the opportunity to work in a seminar format with a member of the faculty in an area of the faculty member’s research interests.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:

    The course is open to first-year students only. Topics vary by semester. This course is offered for distribution credit. Students may take only one 14F or 12F seminar and only one 14S or 12S seminar. May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis.



  
  •  

    FA 015 - Drawing and Perception II

    Semester Hours: 3
    Spring
    Continuation of 14, with an emphasis on composition and exploration of both wet and dry media. The course includes some figure drawing. There are several projects requiring multiple drawings, as well as theme-based projects developed individually by students in consultation with the instructor.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FA 014 .



  
  
  •  

    FA 017 - Advanced Drawing and Studio Concepts

    Semester Hours: 3


    Spring
    Experimental and conceptual approaches to drawing, including the figure. The course integrates studio skills with theory. Selected readings may be required, along with field trips to galleries and museums in New York city. The development of individual theme-based portfolios constitutes a major part of the course.


     

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FA 014 015  or 016  (Formerly Drawing IV: The Figure.)

     



  
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    FA 027 - (CP) Digital Design

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    Basic computer graphics are used for creative visual problem solving. Emphasis on visual aesthetics and features lecture, demonstration and a survey of the creative application to the design and advertising field.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Lab fee additional. (Formerly Computer Graphics.)



  
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    FA 030 - Illustration

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    A basic course introducing various software programs and techniques for illustration, with emphasis on the conceptual and the understanding of and experimentation with different illustration styles. Exploring digital image making and drawing techniques on the computer are stressed in order for the student to visualize their concepts and successfully execute them in digital format.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FA 027  or instructor’s permission. Lab fee additional.



  
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    FA 045 - (CP) Beginning Painting

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    An introduction to painting with emphasis on painting media, color theory and composition. A variety of painting techniques and subject matter is considered. The course is open to all students, regardless of previous experience in art. 



  
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    FA 045A - Materials and Techniques of the Painter

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    Lectures and demonstrations dealing with the description, properties and execution of egg tempera, casein, oil, acrylic encaustic, watercolor, collage and gouache painting. The student is expected to create original works using all the media.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FA 045 .



  
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    FA 046 - Intermediate Painting

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    Continuation of experiences in painting with greater emphasis on developing students self-expression and creativity by an in-depth approach and concentrated effort in an area of painting of special interest to the student.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FA 045 .



  
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    FA 047 - Techniques of Watercolor

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    A studio course designed for beginning and intermediate students in the use of the transparent water color medium. Materials and techniques of Western and Oriental water color are explored with emphasis on their inherent, unique qualities. This course is project oriented, focusing on the study of landscapes and still life subject matter.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FA 045 .



  
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    FA 048 - Life Painting

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    A foundation course in painting from the model with emphasis on the portrait and figure. Includes drawing and design concepts with slide lectures, emphasizing the historical, technical and aesthetic concerns of life painting.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FA 016 , 045 .



  
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    FA 051 - Graphic Design Studio

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall
    Posters, billboards, ads, book jackets, and postage stamps all make use of strong, meaningful, and well- designed images to attract attention, convey information, and evoke a response. Researching, planning, and refining design solutions to create beautiful and effective portfolio-quality work are the focus of this course.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Lab fee additional. (Formerly Communication Design I.)



  
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    FA 051A - Graphic Design Studio: Typography

    Semester Hours: 3
    Spring
    This course takes a broad approach to learning typography, which includes understanding the elements of letter forms, choosing font styles, setting text, and working with the grid. Course will include experimental and functional typography from large scale to the small screen.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    FA 051  or permission of the instructor. Lab fee additional. (Formerly Communication Design II.)



  
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    FA 052 - Industrial Design 1

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall
    A study and application of various techniques and theories of 3-D design. Explore the creative process, develop critical thinking skills, challenge limits, and produce successful design in a series of hand-on assignments.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Lab fee additional.



  
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    FA 052A - Industrial Design 2

    Semester Hours: 3
    Spring
    A continuation of 52, for those wishing to major in industrial design. Along with working on model making, presentation and design skills, 3D computer modeling using Form-Z will be introduced.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Lab fee additional. (Formerly Fundamentals of Applied Design: Three Dimensional; Industrial Design 2; Industrial Design 2 (ID2).)



  
  •  

    FA 058 - (CP) Sculpture I: Construction

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall
    A basic understanding of the construction approach to sculpture. Materials such as wood, metals, plastics, and ceramics are used. Various techniques of joining including welding are introduced. Lectures and museum visits supplement studio work.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Lab fee additional.



  
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    FA 059 - (CP) Sculpture II: Modeling

    Semester Hours: 3
    Spring
    A basic course meant to provide experience in modeling from life and other forms in such materials as clay, wax, rubber and plaster. Elements of mold-making and casting are also covered. Lectures and visits will supplement studio work.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Lab fee additional.



 

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