Mar 02, 2024  
2022-2023 Undergraduate Bulletin 
    
2022-2023 Undergraduate Bulletin [ARCHIVED BULLETIN]

Course Descriptions


 

Comparative Literature, Languages, and Linguistics (CLLL)

  
  • CLL 054 - (LT) The Oedipus Theme

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    A comparative analysis of the evolution of the Oedipus theme from its origins in Greek culture to its modern deployment as both a literary motif and an interpretative figure.



  
  • CLL 055 - (LT) Zombies in Literature, Film, and Society

    Semester Hours: 3
    This course examines the figure of the zombie in literature, film, and television.  The walking dead provide a glimpse into cultural anxieties, particularly those related to race, gender and class.  This course examines zombies trans-historically, with investigations into such texts as George Romero’s Night of the Living Dead, Richard Matheson’s I am Legend, Max Brooks’, World War Z, Colson Whitehead’s Zone One, and the television series (and its graphic novel progenitor), The Walking Dead.  Course includes readings that help us understand why our culture seems to find the living dead so important. 

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    (Formerly CLL 151 Studies in Literature, when given as “Surviving the Zombie Apocalypse.”)



  
  • CLL 075 - (LT) Women Writers in the Romantic Tradition

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    Traces elements of Romanticism and its development in the works of major women writers of the 19th and early 20th century (1810-1932). Includes works by Germaine de Stael, Mary Shelley, George Sand, Edith Wharton and Colette.



  
  • CLL 120 - (LT) Jewish Humor: From Bible to Borat

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically

    This course presents a transnational and transhistorical survey of significant works of Jewish humor from literature, oral narrative, performance, and cinema. Texts selected from Eastern Europe, England, the United States, and Israel demonstrate both the survival and transformations of Jewish comic traditions. Through lectures, discussions, exercises and papers, students gain a broad understanding of the history, psychology, and philosophy of humor related to Jewish arts and letters from around the globe and across the centuries.



  
  
  • CLL 139 - (CC, LT) Performance, Protest and the Arab World

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    This course explores cultural expressions of protest and the politics of contemporary performance in the Arab world. Examining works in their historical context, we consider the ways that poetry, theater, dance, music and performance art can constitute forms of political expression considered dangerous to powerful regimes. The course introduces different ways of reading and understanding various performance forms and their political stakes; considers the connections between different cultural forms; and explores the cultural dynamics of Arab protest and resistance movements. Works studied may include Syrian theater, Iraqi performance art, Tunisian hip-hop, Palestinian dance, and Egyptian colloquial poetry.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    (Formerly CLL 151, Studies in Literature:  Performance, Protest and the Arab World.)



  
  
  
  • CLL 151 - (LT) Studies in Literature

    Semester Hours: 3


    Fall, Spring

    Designed to treat special subjects or authors at the discretion of the department, but with the student’s interest in view. Such subjects as existentialism, death, and the literary imagination, love in literature, or subjects of a like nature have been topics of recent analysis.

    Current Special Topics

    CLL 151: Avant-Garde

    This course examines the theory and practice of four defining avant-garde movements between the two world wars which sought to create “a revolution of the mind”:  Futurism, Expressionism, Dada, and Surrealism redefined the style and politics of art.  We read manifestoes, poetry, an expressionist play, a surrealist novel, see an expressionist film and look at paintings, photomontages, collages, found objects, which defy reality; and analyze the style and politics of the groups. Works include Futurist, Dada, and Surrealist Manifestoes, the expressionist play, The Son and the expressionist film, Metropolis, the surrealist novel, Nadja, and poetry and art reflective of the movements and their impact worldwide.

    CLL 151: Literature and Ethics

    It has been common for millennia for writers, readers, and critics to look to literature as a potential source of moral instruction. In this course, we will look at several kinds of fictional literature to examine whether art can indeed reflect an ethical component and what we may learn from it if it does. I will propose that literature may indeed have an instructive effect, but that it better helps us to understand how to think ethically than it does what to think.

    CLL 151: From Beer to BMWs: Modernism in Munich

    This course will introduce students to the city of Munich and its environs, its architecture, and institutions: from the famous Hofbräuhaus, German brewing traditions, and Oktoberfest, to the new Bavarian Motor Worksheadquarters - BMW-World (Germany’s most popular tourist site), to Munich’s many great art museums and outdoor activities at nearby lakes, in the Alps and around Bavaria. Readings of literature will get related to the art and cultural history of Munich, the state of Bavaria, and Germany, and literally plotted onto the map of city and state with fun online excursions and explorations of Munich! Students will create their own digital ‘study abroad’ journals of this ‘trip’ to Munich, reflecting our excursions and their own interests.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    May be repeated when topics vary.



  
  • CLL 154 - Doubles, Doppelgängers and Masks in Venice and Japan

    Semester Hours: 3


    Venice and Japan are known for their masks–Carnival masks and Noh masks, respectively.  This course covers the various ways that masks are employed in Venice and Japan to draw links between the practices of masking and the structure of society.  The course will include investigations into the history of masking in Venice, which extends far beyond the masks of carnival, concepts of “face” and unmasking in Japan, carnival, commedia dell’arte, noh, and bunraku. Our exploration of masking cultures will help us to understand the varieties of masking that can be found.

     



  
  
  
  • CLL 172 - (LT) European Literature of the 17th and 18th Centuries

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    A comparative study of the main aspects of classicism and rationalism in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries.



  
  • CLL 173 - (LT) Sentiment to Sadism in the Early European Novel

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    Study of the European novel from the end of the 17th to the end of the 18th century. Focus on the development and decadence of feelings, sentiments, and emotions and how they reflect political and social events of the period.



  
  • CLL 176 - (LT) The Nineteenth-Century Short Story: Chekhov and His Predecessors

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    A survey of European and American short-story writing over the roughly one-hundred year period from the late eighteenth century to the appearance of Chekhov’s mature works. Chekhov’s stories represent a culmination of certain Western European as well as Russian traditions of the diminutive prose form. The evolution of the Russian short story will be traced from its formal beginnings (inspired by French Sentimentalism) through the works of the major nineteenth century prose writers such as Pushkin and Gogol. Turgenev emerges as a pivotal figure, having patent affinities with Western writers and providing a structural model for Chekhov’s stories. The texts from this tradition will be read together with stories by E.T.A. Hoffman, Kleist, Maupassant,  Melville, Hawthorne, and Edgar Allan Poe.




  
  • CLL 177 - (LT) Organized Crime in Contemporary Culture

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    The subcultures of organized crime groups in countries as different as Mexico, Italy, United States, Russia, Japan, and India manifest striking similarities. In this course we will examine the self-consciously romanticized, demonized, and/or pointedly unglamorous images of organized crime in political discourse, literature, and cinema around the world. We will examine the ways in which literary, cinematic, journalistic, and internet texts portray the lives of organized crime workers within the international marketplace, and how they reflect an increasingly interconnected global economy.
     

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis.



  
  • CLL 180 - Internship in Comparative Literature and Languages

    Semester Hours: 1-3
    Periodically
    This internship program provides students with practical knowledge and skills required in the fields related to comparative literature and languages.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Prerequisites dependent upon proposed internship and an interview with program director.  For each semester hour of credit earned, students will work a minimum of 28 hours on-site in addition to completing a minimum of 10 hours of academic work that will include reading, research, and a final paper or project that situates the internship experience within the broader framework of the academic study of comparative literature and languages. Also required are a minimum of three meetings with a faculty adviser during the course of the internship. Grades will be based on both academic and on-site performance. An on-site evaluation of “poor” will result in a final grade no higher than C.



  
  • CLL 181 - (LT) Hybrid Identities in Literature

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    The French philosopher and social thinker Michel Foucault once wrote that each should “cultivate [his or her] legitimate strangeness.”  This course explores characters in world literature from the middle of the 19th century to the present who are caught between cultures, classes or even countries, individuals who are already deemed to be “strange” or difficult to categorize or pigeonhole because they belong to more than one social world. Needless to say, those who acknowledge and actively cultivate any hybrid identity or sense of difference run the risk of a more radical break from the society in which they live; often their multifaceted identities coincide with a multiculturalism that cannot be acknowledged by the monolithic community that surrounds them.  We will examine a range of characters in works from Europe, the United States, South America and Asia who exemplify this dynamic of an outsider consciousness, paying particularly close attention to details of language, structure and different methods of literary analysis and theory.



  
  • CLL 182 - (LT) Robot Dreams: Artificial and Human Identities in Literature and Popular Culture

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    In this course, we will trace the issues of mechanization and artificial intelligence in literature and popular culture from the industrial revolution through the age of the Internet and the “hive mind” of rave music. What is the proper response to the possibility if the “dehumanization” of individual identity and mass culture? In attempting to answer this question, writers often find themselves asking what is really human, and how the natural can be effectively distinguished from the manufactured. We will discuss both the resistance to technology and the often difficult embrace of it, reading authors such as Mary Shelley, E.T.A. Hoffman, Karel Capek, Franz Kafka, Stanislaw Lem and William Gibson. We will watch films (Metropolis, Blade Runner, The Matrix and A.I.) that make specific reference to the literary readings of the course, comparing and contrasting them with their source material. We will also examine the topic of false or manufactured identities in cyberspace as a variation on the theme of artificial intelligence.



  
  • CLL 188 - (LT) Psychoanalysis and Literature

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring, Summer
    This course examines the influence of Freudian psychoanalytic concepts on literature and the arts as well as literary influences on formative psychoanalytic concepts developed by Sigmund Freud. Texts may include The Uncanny and other Essays (Freud), Interpretation of Dreams (Freud), Oedipus the King (Sophocles), Gradiva (Wilhelm Jensen), Sons and Lovers (Lawrence), and films by Hitchcock, Neil Jordan, and others.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Credit for this course or CLL 151  (Psychoanalysis and Literature), not both. (Formerly, CLL 151, Psychoanalysis and Literature.)



  
  • CLL 190 - (LT) World Literature and the Anatomy of Cultural Difference

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically

    Introduces students to the notion of world literature by presenting works from different countries and cultures, languages and traditions in a comparative context, with emphasis primarily on cross-cultural comparisons between Western and non-Western literatures.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    WSC 002 .



  
  
  • CLL 193 - (LT) The Color of Literature

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    This course explores works by ‘writers of color’ and investigates the notion of assigning racial, ethnic, and cultural identity labels to works of literature. Does literature have a color? Can it? How is this relevant to literary study? In a cross-cultural context, we will examine how works of literature reflect the history and discussion of race, ethnicity, and culture in a given society. These works also participate in and give form to issues and debates that extend beyond the work back into society at large.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Same as AFST 193 .



  
  • CLL 194 - Readings in Comparative Literature

    Semester Hours: 1-4
    Periodically
    Individualized readings courses to permit the student to pursue topics of special interest.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Open to all students with permission of department chairperson. May be repeated for up to 6 s.h. May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis.



  
  
  • CLL 196 - Senior Essay

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    Research and writing of a substantial essay in the field of comparative literature.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Open only to senior majors who have secured, before registration, the written permission of the faculty adviser who will supervise the essay. May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis. Note: CLL 196, 197 , 198  satisfy the same major requirement.



  
  • CLL 197 - Departmental Honors Candidacy: Essay

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    Research and writing of a substantial essay in the field of comparative literature.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Open only to senior majors who are eligible for departmental honors and who have secured, before registration, the written permission of the faculty adviser who will supervise the essay. May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis. Note: CLL 196 , 197, 198  satisfy the same major requirement.



  
  • CLL 198 - (LT) Advanced Seminar

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    Advanced discussion of literary analysis, literary history and literary theory. Topic varies according to semester and professor. Substantial research paper is required. This seminar is open to senior majors and minors, and to qualified advanced junior students by permission. Students need to have completed the majority of their course work for the major before this seminar, which satisfies the Senior Essay requirement of the major.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Note: CLL 196 , 197 , 198 satisfy the same major requirement.



  
  

Computer Science (CSC)

  
  • CSC 005 - (CS) Overview of Computer Science

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    Computers, algorithms and their relation to society. Introduction to the organization of computers and digital data representation, overview of the role of computers and algorithms in modern influential applications, algorithm analysis, step-by-step problem solving and program development. Use of a high-level programming language. The course includes a laboratory component on visual programming applications.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    No credit toward the major in computer science.



  
  • CSC 006 - (CS) The Art and Science of Computer Games

    Semester Hours: 3-4

    Periodically
    Introduction to programming and algorithmic thinking through computer game development. Students will learn to program 2D and 3D games—including animation, collision detection, and visual effects—using easy to use programming environments.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    No credit toward the major in computer science. No previous programming experience necessary. (Formerly The Art and Science of Games.)



  
  • CSC 007 - (CS) Cybersecurity for Everyone

    Semester Hours: 3


    Fall, Spring

    A hands-on introduction to cybersecurity threats and mitigation approaches, in a way that is accessible to students without computing backgrounds. Topics include background knowledge of Internet and web applications, packet sniffer, user authentication, prevalent attacks such as SQL injection, cross site scripting attacks and case studies of recent cybersecurity incidents. The course has an intensive hands-on lab component and a capture-the-flag contest.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    No credit toward the major in computer science/computer engineering. Credit for CSC 005 or CSC 007, but not both.



  
  • CSC 012 - C for Programmers

    Semester Hours: 1
    Periodically
    The essential features of C are examined for those already having knowledge of a high-level language.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Knowledge of programming and permission of instructor.



  
  • CSC 012S - First-Year Seminar

    Semester Hours: 1-3
    Spring
    This course gives first-year students the opportunity to work in a seminar format with a member of the faculty in an area of the faculty member’s research interests.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    The course is open to first-year students only. Topics vary by semester. Students may take only one 12F or 12S seminar.



  
  • CSC 014 - (MA, CS) Discrete Structures for Computer Science I

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    Review of propositional and predicate logic. Methods of theorem proving; strong and weak induction. Finite and infinite sets, set operations. Introductions to computational complexity, theta and big-O notation Combinatorics, including permutations and combinations. Discrete probability and binomial distribution. (3 hours lecture, 1 hour laboratory.)

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Three years of high school mathematics.



  
  • CSC 014F - First-Year Seminar

    Semester Hours: 3-4
    Fall

    This course gives first-year students the opportunity to work in a seminar format with a member of the faculty in an area of the faculty member’s research interests.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:

    The course is open to first-year students only. Topics vary by semester. This course is offered for distribution credit; consult the Semester Planning Guide for proper category listing. Students may take only one 14F or 12F seminar and only one 14S or 12S seminar.



  
  • CSC 014S - First-Year Seminar

    Semester Hours: 3-4
    Spring

    This course gives first-year students the opportunity to work in a seminar format with a member of the faculty in an area of the faculty member’s research interests.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:

    The course is open to first-year students only. Topics vary by semester. This course is offered for distribution credit; consult the Semester Planning Guide for proper category listing. Students may take only one 14F or 12F seminar and only one 14S or 12S seminar.



  
  • CSC 015 - (CS) Fundamentals of Computer Science I: Problem Solving and Program Design

    Semester Hours: 4
    Fall, Spring
    Introduction to computer science with emphasis on problem solving, programming and algorithm design. Uses a high-level programming language for solving problems and emphasizing program design and development. Topics include basic programming constructs, expressions, functions, data types, arrays and strings. (3 hours lecture, 2 hours laboratory.)



  
  • CSC 015H - (CS) Introduction to Programming for The Humanities

    Semester Hours: 4


    Fall, Spring

    Introduction to digital humanities with emphasis on problem solving, programming and algorithm design. Topics include data types, programming constructs, strings, lists, dictionaries and functions. Students will learn to design and test programs. Assignments will focus on text and social media data analysis and manipulation as well as data visualization with applications in a wide range of disciplines.  Credit for CSC 015  or CSC 015H, but not both.



  
  • CSC 015S - Fundamentals of Cybersecurity

    Semester Hours: 3


    Fall

    Introduction to fundamental concepts of cybersecurity, basic secure design principles and IT system components. The lab component covers basic Linux administration skills such as OS installation, user account management, vim editor, basic UNIX commands interface, access controls, file system backup/restoration and deployments of intrusion detection systems.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 016



  
  • CSC 016 - (CS) Fundamentals of Computer Science II: Data Structures, Algorithms and Object-Oriented Programming

    Semester Hours: 4
    Fall, Spring
    Continuation of CSC 15. Introduction to classes and objects. Investigates the essential properties of data structures, abstract data types, algorithms for operating them, use of these structures as tools to assist algorithm design. Introduces searching and sorting techniques. (3 hours lecture, 2 hours laboratory.) 

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 014 , 015 .



  
  • CSC 017 - (CS) Fundamentals of Computer Science III: Advanced Data Structures and Object-Oriented Programming

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall, Spring
    Continuation of CSC 16. This course advances beyond the principles learned in CSC 16 to practical programming skills; design and analysis of data structures involving techniques including: inheritance, polymorphism, parametric polymorphism through templates, systematic approaches to coding and testing; code reuse; standard template libraries; I/O issues. (3 hours lecture, 1 hour laboratory.)

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 014 , 016 . The course has an oral communication component.  (Formerly 155, Fundamentals of Computer Science III.)



  
  • CSC 020 - Themes of Computer Science

    Semester Hours: 0
    This course is designed to be a transition course between the Fundamentals of Computer Science I and II and between Discrete Structures for Computer Science I and II. This course will review foundational material in discrete structures and introductory programming.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 014, CSC 015. Offered on Pass/Fail basis only.



  
  • CSC 024 - Discrete Structures for Computer Science II

    Semester Hours: 3
    Spring
    Functions, including surjections, injections, bijections. Continued study of computational complexity, theta and big-O notation. Recursive definitions and algorithms, recurrence relations and their solution, divide and conquer algorithms. Graphs: terminology, representations of graphs (including applications of matrix multiplication), complexity of graph problems.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 014 . (Formerly Discrete Mathematics II.)



  
  • CSC 050 - Fundamentals of Object-Oriented Programming

    Semester Hours: 3
    Familiarize students with essential concepts of object-oriented programming using the Java language. Course covers basic systems concepts, including hardware architecture and software. The notion of an object and class design are discussed. Applets and applications are explored. Coverage of Java syntax, including fundamental language components, selection structures, repetition structures, and data structures. Hands-on exposure to the Java development environment. Some HTML syntax coverage. Course requirements include homework exercises and completion of several programming projects.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 005  or equivalent. May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis.



  
  • CSC 052 - Fundamentals of Systems Analysis

    Semester Hours: 3
    Provides students with an overview of the issues and methodologies relevant to systems analysis and design. Lectures focus on the five phases of the system development life cycle: planning, analysis, design, implementation, and operation and support. Laboratories focus on learning software tools available for systems analysis and design. Students work in teams on all phases as they explore a variety of realistic case studies. Other topics include rapid prototyping, CASE tools, client/server systems, software engineering and project management tools. Requirements include completion of in class and homework laboratory projects as well as presentation of a complete analysis report to the class.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 005  or equivalent. May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis.



  
  • CSC 054 - Fundamentals of Data Communications and Networking

    Semester Hours: 3
    Spring
    Introduction to data communications and networking. History, evolution and current trends. Hardware issues including signals, media, terminals, communications backbones, and transmission methods. Protocols, including Open Systems Interconnection, TCP/IP, LANs, WANs, client-server and peer-to-peer, secure communciations. Structure of the Internet: protocols, services, the World Wide Web. Course requirements include homework exercised and a research paper on a topic of interest and presentation of findings.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 050 . May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis. (Formerly Fundamentals of Data Communications.)



  
  • CSC 056 - Fundamentals of Database Management Systems

    Semester Hours: 3
    Introduction to database management systems (DBMS). Familiarize students with the fundamental issues and terminology of DBMS. Relational models, SQL, normalization. Design methodologies are covered in lectures and through a series of laboratory experiments. Typical functions of a DBM and DEMs administration are covered. Advanced topics include distributed systems, client/server systems, and object-oriented systems. Course requirements include several laboratory exercises.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 005  (or equivalent), CSC 050 . May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis.



  
  • CSC 058 - Fundamentals of Web Application Development

    Semester Hours: 3
    Spring
    Web applications are task-specific application programs available from Web servers. Examples include online stores and auctions, student registration systems, and Webmail. This course introduces students to the essential concepts of Web application development, primarily using the rapid application development (RAD) tools for JavaServer Faces and ASP.NET. It covers basic concepts of client-server systems, Web protocols and software. Coverage includes user-interface development with JSF/HTML tags, forms and images, validation, event-handling, Java Beans, navigation, database access and tables, and XML. Course requirements include completion of homework exercises and several laboratory programming projects.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 050 , 054 . May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis.  (Formerly Fundamentals of JavaScript Programming.)



  
  • CSC 060 - Fundamentals of Network Security

    Semester Hours: 3
    Spring
    Survey of current issues, techniques, software, hardware and architectures related to network security. Examination of the protocols used for Internet services, their vulnerabilities and how they can be secured. Analysis of firewall design, cryptographic techniques, intrusion detection, port scanning, viruses, Trojan horses, application authentication, and denial of service attacks. Basic principles of secure networking and application design will be studied and discussed.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 054 . May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis. (Formerly Fundamentals of Networking.)



  
  • CSC 061 - (CS) Fundamentals of Health Informatics

    Semester Hours: 3


    Fall, Spring, Summer
    This course is designed to introduce health informatics (HI) at a level appropriate for non-majors in computer science. The course focuses on the interaction of computer science with biomedical and healthcare data and will emphasize how to use computers to optimize the acquisition, storage, retrieval, and use of electronic healthcare information. Topics include standards, storage, exchange and analysis of healthcare data; biomedical decision-making and clinical probabilistic reasoning; essential principles in biomedial computing; data mining; ethical issues in security and privacy in HI; image and clinical informatics; and telemedicine.

     

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Does not count toward major requirements in computer science or computer engineering. May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis.



  
  • CSC 062 - Ecommerce

    Semester Hours: 3
    Provide students with an overview of the issues and technologies relevant to electronic commerce. Students design and implement a prototype ecommerce web site. Topics include communications, networking and the Internet; programming, scripting languages and authoring tools; security; databases and archiving; multimedia; transaction processing; search engines; and data mining. Students work in teams on the design and implementation of their web sites and present a report and demonstration to the class.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 050 , 052 , 054 , 056 , 058 , 060 . May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis.



  
  • CSC 102 - (CS) Numerical Methods

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    Iterative computational methods for solving numerical equations and systems using computer programs and spreadsheets. Roots of algebraic equation systems. Matrices; solutions of linear algebraic equations by matrix methods, iteration, and relaxation. Taylor’s series, finite differences, numerical integration, interpolation, and extrapolation. Solution of initial and boundary value ordinary differential equations.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    MATH 072 , CSC 015  or ENGG 010 . Same as ENGG 101  and MATH 147 .



  
  • CSC 110 - Introduction to Computer Architecture

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall
    Internal structure of computers. Logic design: Boolean algebra, gates and flip-flops, synthesis of combinatorial networks, registers, serial and parallel organization, control mechanisms. Number systems and arithmetic, two’s-complement arithmetic. Operating cycle, data and control flow in a typical computer. Interrupts, i/o devices, programmed i/o and DMA.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 014 , 015 .



  
  • CSC 110A - Computer Architecture Laboratory

    Semester Hours: 1
    Spring
    Provides hands-on experience in using digital electronics by way of integrated circuits without engineering bias. Offers practical construction, testing and implementation of circuits useful in digital circuits and modules.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 110 . Laboratory fee required.



  
  • CSC 111 - Assembly-Language Programming

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    Organization of a computer: memory, addressing; number systems and conversion. Assemblers, base registers, relocation. Fixed-point numeric processing, string processing, indexing and iteration. Floating-point arithmetic and Boolean operations. Subroutines, macros, i/o channel programming.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 014 , 016 .



  
  • CSC 112 - Computer Operating Systems

    Semester Hours: 3
    Spring
    A study of the internal design of operating systems. Topics include memory management, multiprogramming, virtual memory, paging and segmentation. Job and process scheduling; multiprocessor systems; device and file management; thrashing, cache memory.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 017 , 110 .



  
  • CSC 113 - Introduction to Embedded-Systems Design

    Semester Hours: 4


    Once a year

    Embedded systems are all around us. They are special-purpose computer systems used in almost every aspect of modern daily life. Smart TVs, smartwatches, game consoles, digital cameras, ATMs, and washing machines are but a few examples of embedded systems. In the past several years, we have seen a growing focus on developing networked and internet-connected embedded systems. In this course, we will learn how to design, build and program such systems and how to set them free into the wild internet of things. This course will offer both theoretical background and hands-on lab experience in areas such as computer systems and physical world interaction using sensors and actuators, microprocessor programming, real-time and event-driven programming techniques, serial/parallel busses and communication protocols, ad-hoc sensor networks, RF/WIFI based communications (3 hours lecture, 2 hours laboratory).

     

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 110  and CSC 016  or ENGG 036  and ENGG 032B . May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis.



  
  • CSC 115 - Introduction to Secure Systems/Ethical Hacking

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    This course covers the fundamental aspects of system security. It emphasizes hands-on practice with ethical hacking on computer and information systems for the purpose of finding and fixing vulnerabilities and determining appropriate counter-approaches to attacks. Topics include but are not limited to: access control, OS memory organization and various overflow attacks, web application security, viruses and worms, intrusion-detection systems, botnet, honeynet, and malware analysis.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 112 . May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis. Credit for this course or CSC 215, not both.



  
  • CSC 120 - Algorithms and Data Structures

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall
    The study of representations for lists, stacks, queues, trees, and graphs. Fundamental algorithms (and their implementation) for sorting, searching, merging, hashing, graph theoretic models and recursive procedures.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 017 .



  
  • CSC 121 - Introduction to Bioinformatics

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    This course is designed to introduce bioinformatics at a level appropriate for both computer science and biology majors having completed the lower-level courses in either computer science or biology. Bioinformatics is a practical course that will emphasize how to use the computer as a tool for solving some central problems in molecular biology, genetics and biochemistry. Topics include pair-wise sequence alignment; multiple sequence alignment; phylogenetic analysis; database searching; gene finding and regulation; and DNA microarrays. 

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 017 . Credit awarded for this course or BIOL 173 , not both. May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis.



  
  • CSC 123 - Programming Languages: Survey, Design and Implementation

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall
    A study of the fundamental principles that distinguish the major families of modern programming languages. Syntax and the BNF, memory allocation and semantics of static, stack-based and dynamic languages, abstract data types, advanced control structures. Programming in functional, logic, imperative, and object-oriented programming languages.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 017 .



  
  • CSC 124 - Compiler Construction

    Semester Hours: 3
    Spring
    Design and implementation for imperative and object-oriented programming languages. Lexical scanning, parsing techniques, semantic analysis and intermediate code generation, optimization techniques, target code generation. Management of symbol table; error handling. Programming required.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 017 , 123 , 161 .



  
  • CSC 125 - Introduction to Concurrent and Parallel Programming

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    This course is an introduction to the theory and practice of concurrent and parallel programming. Topics include the following: Hoare CSP, Pi-Calculus, distributed synchronization, asynchronous communication, high-performance clusters, and massively parallel algorithms for scientific computation. Concurrent/Parallel programming technologies used will be Java, Ada and MPI.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 017 . May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis. No liberal arts credit. Credit for this course or CSC 290B, not both. (Formerly, CSC 145P Concurrent and Parallel Computing.)



  
  • CSC 128 - Human Computer Interaction/ Human Factors

    Semester Hours: 3


    This course introduces fundamental concepts and theories that help students understand how learning human physiological and psychological strengths and limitations can lead to better design, more effective learning, friendlier human computer interactions for safer environments.

    This course considers the following topics, an introduction to human factors, research methods, design and evaluation methods, human sensory systems, cognition, decision making, stress and workload, safety and human error, principles of human computer interaction, sketch design and prototyping, handless interaction.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Same as ENGG 128.



  
  • CSC 132 - Computational Modeling

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    Fundamental principles of modeling and simulation. Methodology including model formation, design of simulation experiments, analysis of generated data and validation of results. Survey of applications. Project chosen from area of student’s interest.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC/ENGG 185 or permission of the instructor



  
  • CSC 143 A-Z - Independent Study Projects in Computer Science and Computer Engineering

    Semester Hours: 0.5-3
    Fall, Spring
    Individual or group projects on selected topics such as the design of computer software, hardware and applications.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Junior standing and permission of project adviser. (Formerly Independent Study Projects in Computer Science; 143.)



  
  • CSC 144 A-Z - Independent Study Projects in Computer Science and Computer Engineering

    Semester Hours: 0.5-3
    Fall, Spring
    Individual or group projects on selected topics such as the design of computer software, hardware  and applications.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Junior standing and permission of project adviser. (Formerly 144; Independent Study Projects in Computer Science.)



  
  • CSC 145 A-Z - Special Topics in Computer Science and Computer Engineering

    Semester Hours: 1-3
    Periodically
    Topics are chosen from areas of current interest that are not covered in existing course offerings. Subjects are announced annually.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Junior standing and requirements for current topic. May be repeated for credit when topics vary. Specific titles and course descriptions for special topics courses are available in the online class schedule. (Formerly 145; Special Topics in Computer Science.)



  
  • CSC 149 - Introduction to Text Mining

    Semester Hours: 3


    Periodically

    The course covers techniques used in text retrieval and text analysis applications such as search engines, text categorization and clustering, topic extraction, summarization, sentiment analysis. Topics include: natural language processing techniques for extracting relevant terms out of text data, vector space and probabilistic methods for computing similarity between documents, document ranking, clustering and classification methods for text analysis.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 017 , basic knowledge of linear algebra (matrix and vector computations).



  
  • CSC 150 - Introduction to the Semantic Web

    Semester Hours: 3
    Spring
    The Semantic Web is an evolution of the current World Wide Web where data is now represented as meaningful knowledge. With the emergence of “big data,” search engines, social networks, and personal assistants such as Siri heavily use Semantic Web technologies in order to improve how machines understand data. This course will give an introduction to Semantic Web technologies and their applications. The crux of the Semantic Web is in semantic representation and reasoning of data using description logic ontologies. Thus, we will delve into different aspects of ontology theory, representation, creation, design, reasoning, and programming. Students will build Semantic Web applications throughout the course and learn the behind-the-scenes processing of data within modern Web-based systems.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Prerequisite: CSC 017 . May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis. Credit given for this course or CSC 250, not both.



  
  • CSC 153 - Advanced Computer Architecture

    Semester Hours: 3
    Once a Year
    Study of computer architecture from classical to advanced perspectives. Explores architectural characteristics of modern computer systems such as performance, instruction sets, assemblers, datapaths, pipelining, caching, memory management, I/O considerations, and multiprocessing.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 110  or ENGG 036 . Same as ENGG 153 .



  
  • CSC 154 - Advanced Computer Architecture Laboratory

    Semester Hours: 1
    Spring
    Experiments provide laboratory experience in the designs and operations of different types of computer architecture, memory architectures, I/O and bus subsystems, special purpose architectures, parallel processing, and distributed systems. Explore hardware and software issues and tradeoffs in the design, implementation, and simulation of working computer systems.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 153  or ENGG 153  and CSC 110A  or ENGG 032B  with permission of instructor. Same as ENGG 154 . No liberal arts credit.



  
  • CSC 155 - Systems Programming

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    Introduction to UNIX-like operating systems, file systems, processes commands, shells, scripting languages, C-UNIX interface, interprocess communication, socket and network programming, and writing kernel modules. Students will be working on multiple programming projects. Good programming skills are expected.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 016 .



  
  • CSC 156 - Introduction to Machine Learning

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    The course introduces the mathematical, algorithmic and practical aspects of machine learning. Students will learn how to design applications that learn from data and past experience. Applications include classification, clustering, prediction, decision making. Among topics covered in the class are: regression, neural networks, decision trees, support vector machines, model and feature selection, ensemble methods, boosting, clustering, graphical models.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 017 , 185 ; MATH 071 ; or permission of instructor. May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis.



  
  • CSC 157 - Introduction to Data Mining

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    Data mining refers to the discovery of interesting patterns in large databases. This course introduces algorithms and implementation techniques for large data analysis problems (for example, suggesting a movie based on a user’s prior ratings or deciding which ad would be most appropriate on a Web page for a given user). Topics include statistical data analysis, summarization, clustering, classification and prediction; mining for association rules, recommendation systems, collaborative filtering; text and Web mining, neural networks.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 017 , 185 ; MATH 071  or permission of instructor. May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis.



  
  • CSC 158 - Introduction to Artificial Intelligence

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    Survey of concepts and problems of computers performing tasks which traditionally require human intelligence. Topics include heuristic search and robotics, pattern recognition, game playing, theorem proving, question-answer systems and natural language processing.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 017 .



  
  • CSC 159 - Robotics

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    The course introduces students to autonomous robotics. Topics include: motion (motors, direction control), sensing (light, sonar, touch sensors), robotic programming paradigms (reactive, hierarchical and hybrid), navigation (dead-reckoning, path-planning, goal-directed and map-based navigation), learning simple behaviors, teams of robots. It is a hands-on approach to robotics where students will assemble and program a robot.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 016 , 110 . No liberal arts credit. May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis.



  
  • CSC 160 - Fundamentals of Game Development

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    The course covers the basics of game development using existing 2-D and 3-D game engines and game development environments. Students will gain understanding of topics such as textures, shaders, lighting, object development, game logic design, game physics, scripting, rendering/lighting glass materials, animation and collision. The course serves as an introduction to fundamental concepts in video game development. It is a project-oriented course for sophomore level students.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 006  or 016 , or permission of the instructor. May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis. (Formerly CSC 145G, Introduction to Game Development.) Credit given for this course or CSC 145G, not both.



  
  • CSC 161 - Introduction to Automata Theory

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    Introduction to automata and the languages they accept, focusing on finite and pushdown automata. Introduction to Turing machines and the Halting Problem.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 024 .



  
  • CSC 163 - Computing, Ethics, and Society

    Semester Hours: 1
    Once a year
    Critical examination of ethical problems associated with computer technology. Discussion of these problems is conducted within the framework of classical philosophical ethical theories. Legal and quasi-legal (i.e., policy and regulative) issues are also considered. Topics addressed include the process of ethical decision-making, privacy and confidentiality, computer crime, professional codes and responsibilities, software piracy, the impact of computers on society.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Sophomore class standing. No liberal arts credit.



  
  • CSC 164 - Introduction to Computational Finance

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    This course involves the design and analysis of algorithms, data structures and computer programming environments needed for quantitative analysis and financial problem solving as applied to computational financial modeling, econometric modeling and data analysis. The course draws on concepts from microeconomics, finance, mathematical optimization, data analysis, probability models, statistical analysis, and econometrics.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 185 , MATH 071 , CSC 017 , or departmental approval. Credit given for this course or CSC 264, not both.



  
  • CSC 170 - Principles of Database Management

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall
    Introduction to principles of database design: data modeling, entity relationship (E/R) modeling, relational data models and normal forms. Coverage of SQL query language, relational algebra, transaction processing, storage and indexing principles. Application development using current database tools and high-level programming languages.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 017 .



  
  • CSC 171A - Introduction to Computer Graphics

    Semester Hours: 3
    Spring
    Fundamentals of two-dimensional modern interactive graphics: hardware technologies, software, data structures, mathematical manipulation of graphical objects, the user interface and the fundamental implementation of algorithms.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 017 ; MATH 071 . MATH 135A  recommended.



  
  • CSC 172 - Introduction to Real-time Rendering

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    This course focuses on real-time rendering algorithms and methods for creating realistic 3D graphics used in computer games and in advanced computer graphics applications. Topics include modeling and rendering, lighting and texturing, physics-based and behavior-based animation, animation of articulated objects, photorealistic rendering, scene management, level of detail management, terrain generation, collision detection, and collision processing. There is a strong emphasis on programming in this course.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 171A  or permission of instructor. May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis. No liberal arts credit. (Formerly, CSC 145G, Real-time Rendering for Gaming).



  
  • CSC 173 - Introduction to Computer Vision

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    This course provides an introduction to the field of computer vision, which deals with the problems of discerning properties of the real world through automatic analysis of digital images and video—for example, identifying the shapes of objects in the 3-D environment, determining how objects/camera are moving, and recognizing people and objects. Topics to be studied include the following: low-level vision; noise; multiple-view geometry; 3-D shape extraction; discovering structure from motion; object detection and recognition; and applications of computer vision. Students complete programming projects using high-level API.
     

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 171A , or permission of instructor. May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis. No liberal arts credit.



  
  • CSC 175 - Data Communication and Networking

    Semester Hours: 3
    Spring
    A technical introduction to data communication. Topics include the OSI Reference Model, layer services, protocols, LANs, packet switching and X.25, ISDN, File transfer, virtual terminals, system management and distributed processing.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 016 , MATH 071 . (Formerly Principles of Data Communication.)



  
  • CSC 178 - Digital Systems Design and Hardware Description Languages

    Semester Hours: 3


    Once a year

    Electronic Design and Automation (EDA) tools and technologies have allowed for the creation of Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSI) which in turn enabled and fueled the digital revolution in the last four decades. This course will cover the EDA flow from initial design to hardware implementation and focus on system level digital design using the Verilog Hardware Description Language (HDL) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) (3 hours lecture and lab).

     

     

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 110 and CSC 016 or Engg 36 and Engg 32B.  May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis.



  
  • CSC 183 - Introduction to Web Application Development

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    This course covers the foundational aspects of web application development. Topics include the following: the structure of the Internet; client-server applications; stateless web servers; web applications; using cookies to maintain state; servlets and server pages; database connectivity; rapid application development; and comparison of current technologies for web application development.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 017 . May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis. No liberal arts credit. (Formerly, CSC 145W, Web Application Development.)



  
  • CSC 184 - Introduction to Mobile Device Programming

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    Introduction to the design and development of software for portable/handheld devices. Topics include the following: smartphones, tablets, and other media consumption devices and their characteristics and limitations; overview of user-interface design for mobile devices; event handling; differences between graphical user interfaces for the desktop environment and those for portable computers; handling touch input and gestures; connectivity using TCP/IP and SMS; local data storage and storage on the cloud; drawing and creating custom widgets; APIs for multimedia applications; and comparison of current technologies.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 017 . May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis. No liberal arts credit. (Formerly CSC 145C.)



  
  • CSC 185 - Methods of Random Process

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall
    Systematic development of the concept of probability and random process theory. Topics include probability and set theory, random variables, density and distribution functions, multivariate distributions, sampling statistics and distributions, central limit theorem, estimation and the philosophy of applied statistics. The material covered is applied to problems in engineering and the physical sciences.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    MATH 072 .



  
  • CSC 186 - Design and Analysis of Experiments

    Semester Hours: 3
    Spring
    Introduction to the principles of statistical analysis and experimental design. Emphasis on designs and analysis useful in scientific research and management science. Topics include inferences concerning one or more means, variances and proportions, regression and correlation, analysis of variance, and experimental design including factorial experiments.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 185  or ENGG 185 . Same as ENGG 186 .



  
  • CSC 187 - Linear Programming

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    Elements of matrix algebra, vector spaces and convex sets pertinent to the theory and application of linear programming (LP) models. Development of the simplex method and duality theory. The nature of solutions to systems of linear equations are related to LP complications and their resolution. Applications are extended to include the generalized LP problem, transportation, assignment and network problems.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    MATH 072 



  
  • CSC 188 - Introduction to Network Security

    Semester Hours: 3
    Periodically
    A survey of current issues, techniques, software, hardware, and architectures related to network security. Examination of the protocols used for internet services and of their vulnerabilities and how they can be secured. Analysis of firewall design, cryptographic techniques, intrusion detection, port scanning, viruses, Trojan horses, and denial-of-service attacks. Basic principles of secure networking and application design will be studied and discussed.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 175 . May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis. No liberal arts credit. (Formerly CSC 145R.)



  
  • CSC 190 - Software Engineering

    Semester Hours: 3
    Fall
    Students study the nature of the program development task when many people, modules and versions are involved in designing, developing and maintaining a large program or system. Issues addressed include program design, specification, version control, cost estimation and management. Students work in small teams on the cooperative examination and modification of existing systems. The course has an oral communication component including group and individual presentations.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 017 . (Formerly Software Engineering: Theory and Practice.)



  
  • CSC 193 - Departmental Honors Candidacy: Thesis

    Semester Hours: 3
    Research in the student’s area of specialization with a faculty adviser, culminating with a written report and oral defense. Open only to senior Computer Science or Computer Engineering majors who are eligible for departmental honors and who secure, prior to registration, the written approval of an honors adviser and of the departmental chairperson. The course cannot be used to substitute a technical elective. The course is designed to promote the development of student competency in independent research and in the oral presentation of technical information.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Open only to computer science  or computer engineering  majors with senior standing and GPAs of: 3.4 overall, 3.5 in major.



  
  • CSC 194 - Foundations of Leadership and Innovation in Computing

    Semester Hours: 3
    Spring
    This course introduces students to the foundations of leadership and innovation in high-technology areas. Working with leaders and entrepreneurs in the computing field, students gain hands-on experience in identifying opportunities for innovation and product development, and with the life cycle of new high-tech ventures (from ideas to implementation). The course complements students’ knowledge and skills in the computer field with a perspective on leadership and innovation.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 005 , or computer science or computer engineering majors with junior or senior standing. May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis. This course may not count as a technical elective in computer science or computer engineering.



  
  • CSC 197A - Independent Senior Design I

    Semester Hours: 1
    Fall, Spring
    Under faculty advisement students design and implement an integrative project in an area of Computer Science or Computer Engineering. A preliminary project report and a final presentation are required. May not count as a technical elective. The course has an oral communication component.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    Open only to computer science and computer engineering majors with senior standing who have taken CSC 190  and 6 s.h. of technical electives (excluding internship courses in computer science or computer engineering). Students enrolled in the concentration (CLIC) need ENTR 120 . Students enrolled in the option (OLIC) need CSC 194 . Co-requisites: CSC 198F  or 198S . May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis. Laboratory fee required. No liberal arts credit. Grade upon completion of CSC 197A is PR; final grade for CSC 197A will be the same as final grade for CSC 197B , and assigned upon completion of 197B .



  
  • CSC 197B - Independent Senior Design II

    Semester Hours: 1
    Fall, Spring
    Continuation of CSC 197A . Under faculty advisement students complete an integrative project in an area of computer science or computer engineering. A final project report, a poster, and a CD project portfolio are required. The course has an oral communication component.

    Prerequisite(s)/Course Notes:
    CSC 197A . Corequisites: CSC 198F  or 198S . May not count as a technical elective. May not be taken on a Pass/D+/D/Fail basis. Laboratory fee required. No liberal arts credit. Grade upon completion of CSC 197A  is PR; final grade for CSC 197A  will be the same as final grade for CSC 197B, and assigned upon completion of 197B.



 

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